Pronoun Case

Dalam suatu kalimat, kata ganti atau pronomina (pronouns) mempunyai tiga peran atau kedudukan yang disebut case. Sama dengan noun case, pronomina juga mempunyai tiga case, yaitu nominative, objective, dan possessive.

Tentunya kita tahu pronomina I, me, dan my. Ketiga kata ganti orang pertama singular ini mempunyai kedudukan yang berbeda dalam kalimat, yaitu sebagai nominative (I), objective (me), dan possessive (my). Perhatikan ketiga pronoun case dan kata yang digunakan dibawah ini.




 (Pronoun as subject) 

 (Pronoun as object) 




 my, mine



 your, yours






 her, hers






 our, ours



 their, theirs







Nominative Case

1. Nominative case sebagai subjek kata kerja.
- I threw the ball.
- Father and I like to shop at flea market.
- Who do you believe is the better shopper?
- Who is going to be available in two years or three years?

Pronomina I pada kalimat diatas berfungsi sebagai subjek kalimat, meskipun pada kalimat kedua terletak setelah kata father tetapi mempunyai kedudukan yang sama sebagai subjek. Dalam bahasa Inggris jika ada dua subjek atau lebih, umumnya pronomina yang menunjuk pada diri pembicara selalu diletakkan pada urutan terakhir dari subjek.

Who pada kalimat ketiga di atas berfungsi sebagai subjek dari kata kerja is. Meskipun diantara kata who dan is ada sisipan do you believe.

2. Nominative case sebagai predicate nominative.
Predicate nominative adalah nomina atau pronomina yang terletak setelah atau mengikuti to be atau linking verb (am, is, are, look, smell, taste, appear, seem, become).
- The salesman of the month was I.
- It is I who have allergies.
- If I were she, I would take the job.
- It was they who first suggested getting off at the next station.

Pronomina I pada kalimat pertama menerangkan subjek (the salesman of the month) atau menyatakan pengenal dari subjek. Hal yang sama juga berlaku pada kalimat kedua, ketiga dan keempat.

Mana yang benar: “It is I” atau “It is me”? Sesuai penjelasan di atas, yang benar adalah “It is I”, karena I sebagai predicate nominative. Meskipun begitu, “It is me” telah banyak digunakan dan diterima sebagai ungkapan standar.

Objective Case

1. Objective case sebagai direct object.
- She likes me.
- The teachers sent her to the infirmary.
- John is the person whom she met at the opening.
- Whom did she finally invite to the dinner party?

2. Objective case sebagai indirect object.
- The bill gave us a shock.
- The help line representative gave him an answer over the phone.
- Tom offered Mark and me a ride home.
- Marvin wondered whom he should give the message.
- Did the group announce whom they had presented the bonus?

3. Objective case sebagai object of preposition.
- Sit by me.
- For him, no other choice seems reasonable.
- We went to lunch with Mark and him.
- To whom do you wish to speak?
- Did Cody's father tell him whom he wanted to save this letter for?

Possessive Case

1. Possessive case untuk menunjukkan kepemilikan.
- The child refused to admit that the sweater was hers.
- The gift is his.
- Theirs is the best example he as ever seen of interactive web design.
- The team gave its all in the game against the Bears.
- This cell phone is mine, not yours.
- Whose books are on my desk?

2. Possessive case sebelum gerund.
- Your walking in the rain didn’t cause your cold.
- We admired her going out for track.
- Your skipping class is beginning to affect your grade.

Possessive case juga digunakan dengan indefinite pronoun (ditambah apostrof dan ‘s’).
- Someone's misfortune can be another's gain.
- At this point, it is anyone's guess who will win the series.

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