Subordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating conjunctions (disebut juga dependent words atau subordinator) adalah konjungsi yang digunakan untuk menghubungkan dependent clauses (anak kalimat) dengan independent clauses (induk kalimat).

Konjungsi yang biasa digunakan adalah after, although, as, as if, as long as, as soon as, as though, because, before, even if, even though, how, if, if only, in order that, once, provided (that), rather than, since, so that, than, that, though, till, unless, until, whether, when, whenever, where, whereas, wherever, while.

Hubungan dependent clause dengan main clause (independent clause) sangat membantu dalam mengungkapkan ide atau gagasan dan relasinya dalam kalimat dan juga untuk menunjukkan tingkat kepentingan antara ide/gagasan yang satu dengan yang lain.

Contoh:
- We didn’t enjoy the day because the weather was so awful.
- Because it was raining, I took my umbrella.
- I’ll start to think about it when I have to write my report.
- I was so tired that I feel asleep.
- Do it before you forget.
- Let us wait until the rain stops.
- After she had learned to drive, Alice felt more independent.
- If the paperwork arrives on time, your cheque will be mailed on Tuesday.

Subordinating conjunction diletakkan di depan dependent clause. Dan bersama dengan subordinating conjunction, dependent clause dapat diletakkan sebelum main clause (diikuti dengan koma) atau setelah main clause (kadang-kadang menggunakan koma di depannya).
- Although it was hot, he was wearing a coat.
- He was wearing a coat although it was hot.

Beberapa konjungsi menunjukkan makna waktu (time), pilihan (choice), sebab dan alasan (cause and reason), cara atau sikap (manner), akibat dan hasil (effect and result), pertentangan atau perbedaan (opposition or contrast), tempat (location), dan kondisi (condition):
a. Time: after, before, once, when, whenever, while, since, until
b. Choice: whether, rather than
c. Manner: as, as if
d. Cause and reason: as, because, since
e. Effect and result: so, so that, in order that, that
f. Opposition or contrast: although, though, even though, whereas, while
g. Location: wherever, where
h. Condition: if, unless, only if, even if, provided (that)


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