Past Perfect

Past perfect tense digunakan untuk menyatakan kejadian yang telah terjadi sebelum terjadinya peristiwa atau kegiatan lain di waktu lampau.


Pola kalimat past perfect tense.

Pola I
(+) S + had + V3
(-) S + had + not + V3
(?) Had + S + V3

Pola II
(+) S + had + been + Adj/Adv/N
(-) S + had + not + been + Adj/Adv/N
(?) Had + S + been + Adj/Adv/N

Contoh kalimat pola I:
- They had gone to bed by ten o’clock.
- I had not eaten when she came.
- Had the cat killed the parrot?

Contoh kalimat pola II:
- She had been to the supermarket by nine o’clock.
- They had not been here when he came.
- Had she been happy after his father came?


Fungsi past perfect tense:

a. menggambarkan kegiatan atau kejadian yang terjadi lebih dulu sebelum kejadian lainnya di waktu lampau. Kejadian lainnya itu biasanya menggunakan bentuk past simple tense.
- By the time I arrived, Jack had already gone to the bed.
- I was glad that I had caught the early bus.
- Emma went to France last week. Before that, she had never been outside Indonesia.

b. menggambarkan kegiatan atau kejadian yang terjadi lebih dulu sebelum atau pada waktu (kejadian lainnya) yang spesifik di waktu lampau.
- It was one o’clock in the morning. The guests had gone home.
- She had completed the preparations before noon.
- He had left by 10.00.

c. menunjukkan kegiatan atau kejadian yang benar-benar telah selesai dilakukan.
- When Susan had done her shopping, she went to visit her sister.
- As soon as we had done our last exam, we all went out to a club.
- When I got home, I found that Joe had painted his room.


Catatan

Pada saat berbicara menggunakan pola kalimat past perfect tense, subjek dan kata kerja bantu sering dijadikan satu dengan cara disingkat (‘d contraction).
They’d gone to bed by ten o’clock.

Bentuk singkatan ‘d juga dipakai untuk kata kerja bantu would. Contoh, we’d dapat berarti we had atau we would. Tetapi verba utamanya berbeda bentuk, misalnya:
We had arrived (past participle)
We would arrive (base)
Perhatikan konteksnya dalam kalimat untuk membedakannya.

Keterangan waktu yang biasa dipakai dalam past perfect tense adalah when, after, before, as sson as, until, just, already, by, by the time, ever, never, the previous day, the week before.