Past Perfect Continuous

Past perfect continuous tense digunakan untuk menyatakan peristiwa atau kegiatan yang telah dan sedang berlangsung sebelum peristiwa lain terjadi di masa lampau.


Pola kalimat:
(+) S + had + been + V-ing
(-) S + had + not + been + V-ing
(?) Had + S + been + V-ing

Contoh kalimat:
- I had been reading a book for two hours when he arrived.
- She had not been sleeping when he walked in.
- Had you been waiting long before the taxi arrived?


Fungsi past perfect continuous tense:

a. memberikan penekanan pada lamanya kejadian berlangsung selama waktu tertentu sebelum kejadian lainnya di waktu lampau. Kejadian lain yang mengikutinya itu biasanya menggunakan bentuk past simple tense.
- I found my keys yesterday. I had been looking for them for days.
- We had been sleeping for two hours when someone knocked on our door.

b. menggambarkan kegiatan yang terjadi di waktu lampau yang berlangsung lama dan hasilnya atau akibatnya dapat dilihat atau dirasakan.
- The man had been working in the fields, so they were exhausted.
- Her eyes were red. She had been crying.


Catatan

Pola kalimat past perfect continuous tense juga dipakai dalam kalimat tak langsung (indirect/reported speech). Bentuk kalimat tak langsung ini sepadan dengan bentuk kalimat langsung (direct speech) dengan pola past continuous tense dan present perfect continuous tense.

Jane said, “I have been gardening all afternoon.”
Jane said she had been gardening all afternoon. (indirect speech)

When the police questioned him, John said “I was working late in the office that night.”
When the police questioned him, John told them he had been working late in the office that night. (indirect speech)

Keterangan waktu yang biasa dipakai dalam past perfect continuous tense adalah since, for, before, until, when, etc.